[105] France rebounded quickly and enjoyed rapid economic growth and modernisation under the Monnet Plan.  • Warsaw The war ended in 1954 with French withdrawal and a partition of Vietnam that was intended to be temporary until elections could be held. Following the Japanese surrender in August 1945, nationalist leaders Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta declared Indonesian independence. [42] A substantial minority was raped multiple times. The Aftermath of World War I saw drastic political, cultural, economic, and social change across Eurasia, Africa, and even in areas outside those that were directly involved. It culminated in the north invading the south, and the Korean War two years later.  • Technology [7][8], The economy had been devastated. [77] The Emergency would endure for the next 12 years, ending in 1960. [64][page needed], Historians Eiji Takemae and Robert Ricketts state that "When US paratroopers landed in Sapporo, an orgy of looting, sexual violence, and drunken brawling ensued. The communist party of the south eventually organized the common front NLF to fight to unite south and north under the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and thus began the Vietnam War, which ended with the Democratic Republic of Vietnam conquering the South in 1975. [29] By the 65th anniversary of the bombings, total casualties from the initial attack and later deaths reached about 270,000 in Hiroshima[30] and 150,000 in Nagasaki. Approximately 300,000 cases were investigated; 120,000 people were given various sentences including 6,763 death sentences (of which only 791 were carried out). More than a quarter of its national wealth had been spent. During the war, the United States government interned approximately 110,000 Japanese Americans and Japanese who lived along the Pacific coast of the United States in the wake of Imperial Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor.  • Surrender of Germany Of these, an estimated 9.5 million were killed or disappeared, the equivalent of more than 6,000 deaths per day.  • Finland of California Press, 2003, p.81, ”Berlin: [31] About 230,000 hibakusha were still alive as of 2010,[30] and about 2,200 were suffering from radiation-caused illnesses as of 2007.[32]. [67], In Greece, civil war broke out in 1947 between Anglo-American-supported royalist forces and communist-led forces, with the royalist forces emerging as the victors. The first industrial plan for Germany, signed in 1946, required the destruction of 1,500 manufacturing plants to lower German heavy industry output to roughly 50% of its 1938 level. Britain's war debt was described by some in the American administration as a "millstone round the neck of the British economy". [102] The Soviets used 92 trains to transport the specialists and their families, an estimated 10,000-15,000 people. The Federal State of Austria had been annexed by Germany in 1938 (Anschluss, this union was banned by the Treaty of Versailles). With the return of Soviet troops at the end of the war, the Forest Brothers mounted a guerrilla war. World War II also marked the beginning of the end of world imperialism as nationalist movements began to triumph over weakened colonial empires. Following a landslide victory, Labour held more than 60% of the seats in the House of Commons and formed a new government on 26 July 1945 under Clement Attlee. By 1950, equipment had been removed from 706 manufacturing plants, and steel production capacity had been reduced by 6.7 million tons.  • Changsha To remedy this, in 1950 the US sought to promote the European Defence Community, which would have included a rearmed West Germany. The Free City of Danzig, a semi-autonomous city state that was partly overseen by the League, became part of Poland. The Aftermath of World War II.  •  • Hungary 2 (Winter 2001), Forced labor of Germans after World War II, Territorial changes of Germany after World War II, reconstruction of the German industrial base, Council of Relief Agencies Licensed to Operate in Germany, Provisional Government of the French Republic, International Military Tribunal for the Far East, atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Occupation and annexation of the Baltic states by the Soviet Union (1940), Flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–50), Learn how and when to remove this template message, imposed a blockade on the Western zone of occupation in Berlin, Japanese settlers were forced to leave China, United Nations Security Council resolution, Demobilization of United States armed forces after World War II, Ray Salvatore Jennings "The Road Ahead: Lessons in Nation Building from Japan, Germany, and Afghanistan for Postwar Iraq, ICRC in WW II: German prisoners of war in Allied hands, "SLEEPING WITH THE ENEMY; SPAT AT, ABUSED, SHUNNED BY NEIGHBOURS. A new directive recognised that "[a]n orderly, prosperous Europe requires the economic contributions of a stable and productive Germany. [80] In the end, counter-intelligence supplied to the KGB by Kim Philby allowed the KGB to penetrate and ultimately gain control of MI6's entire intelligence network in the Baltic states. Others worked in labour battalions to rebuild infrastructure destroyed during the war. [41][42] Political officers encouraged Soviet troops to seek revenge and terrorise the German population. This offensive attitude among our troops is not at all general, but the percentage is large enough to have given our Army a pretty black name, and we too are considered an army of rapists. [56] Supporting Lilly's lower figure is the "crucial difference" that for World War II military rapes "it was the commanding officer, not the victim, who brought charges". [27][28] In the end, the de-industrialisation programme in Japan was implemented to a lesser degree than the one in Germany. "[55] Robert Lilly's analysis of military records led him to conclude about 14,000 rapes occurred in Britain, France, and Germany at the hands of US soldiers between 1942 and 1945. Stalin won. Following the surrender of Nazi Germany in May 1945 near the close of World War II, the uneasy wartime alliance between the United States and Great Britain on the … The communist-controlled common front Viet Minh (supported by the Allies) was formed among the Vietnamese in the colony in 1941 to fight for the independence of Vietnam, against both the Japanese and prewar French powers. Full-scale war between the opposing forces broke out in June 1946. Nationalist Chinese forces moved in from the north and British from the south (as the French were unable to do so immediately themselves) and then handed power to the French, a process completed by March 1946. Such behavior was commonplace, but news of criminal activity by Occupation forces was quickly suppressed.[65]. This border change reversed the results of the 1919-1920 Polish-Soviet War. Leaders of the operation included Alfons Rebane, Stasys Žymantas, and Rūdolfs Silarājs. Journal of Intelligence History vol. British covert operations in the Baltic States, which began in 1944 against the Nazis, escalated after the war. This dominance had lessened significantly by the early 1970s. [50] Some justified Soviet brutality towards German civilians based on previous brutality of German troops toward Russian civilians. These progressions managed to bring to light that while the middle class population was increasing, prosperity was absent from poor areas, both urban and rural, and this led to subsistence living or crowding into makeshift settlements on the outskirts of cities and towns. Burma, Malaya, and Singapore were returned to Britain and French Indo-China back to France. Events during World War II in the colony of French Indochina (consisting of the modern-day states of Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia) set the stage for the First Indochina War which in turn led to the Vietnam War. The outbreak of the Korean War diverted the attention of the PRC at the same time as it bolstered US support for Chiang Kai-shek, the two main factors that prevented the PRC from invading Taiwan. Due to the rising tension in Europe and concerns over further Soviet expansion, American planners came up with a contingency plan code-named Operation Dropshot in 1949. The communist-controlled common front Viet Minh (supported by the Allies) was formed among the Vietnamese in the colony in 1941 to fight for the independence of Vietnam, against both the Japanese and prewar French powers. 531, (Note: A footnote in Gareau also states: "For a text of this decision, see Activities of the Far Eastern Commission.  • Kuril Islands  • Belgrade 85. 1, no. [65], General Robert L. Eichelberger, the commander of the U.S. Eighth Army, recorded that in the one instance when the Japanese formed a self-help vigilante guard to protect women from off-duty GIs, the Eighth Army ordered armored vehicles in battle array into the streets and arrested the leaders, and the leaders received long prison terms.[65][66]. Rape committed by U.S. soldiers occupying Okinawa was also a notable phenomenon. [82], The KGB believed that the Third World rather than Europe was the arena in which it could win the Cold War.  • Yugoslav Front However, the loan was made primarily to support British overseas expenditure in the immediate post-war years and not to implement the Labour government's policies for domestic welfare reforms and the nationalisation of key industries. However, Allied forces, such as the Americans and the Australians, were alleged to have committed rape in Okinawa during the war and during the subsequent occupation of mainland Japan. Dornbusch, Rüdiger; Nölling, Wilhelm; Layard, P. Richard G (1993). ", http://web.archive.org/web/20070221112633/http://hnn.us/comments/7983.html, http://web.archive.org/web/20070220004454/http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/programmes/crossing_continents/1691452.stm, “How Presidents Use the Term ‘Democracy’ as a Marketing Tool”, http://books.google.com/books?id=WDgBBzWQ2DAC&pg=PA403&dq=Netherlands+Marhsall+plan+aid+indonesia&sig=sQ3KNTs6jfaa_ceWBW9B_9DO-6Q, "Project Paperclip: Dark side of the Moon", http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/magazine/4443934.stm, http://www.english.upenn.edu/~afilreis/Holocaust/nasa-nazis.html, http://books.google.com/books?id=07hgJbzQrt0C&pg=PA235&lpg=PA235&dq=Georg+Rickhey&source=bl&ots=z8HXZ34o_K&sig=21rIxbEu2hirVwQCt4Onihz_QrI&hl=en&ei=LdF6TNfLB8OEnQfHgamdCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&sqi=2&ved=0CCQQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q=Georg%20Rickhey&f=false, "Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: Questions and Answers", http://web.archive.org/web/20080626045117/http://www.amnestyusa.org/escr/files/escr_qa.pdf, Who benefits from global violence and war: uncovering a destructive system, Finnish prisoners of war in the Soviet Union, German prisoners of war in the Soviet Union, German prisoners of war in the United States, Italian prisoners of war in the Soviet Union, Japanese prisoners of war in the Soviet Union, Japanese prisoners of war in World War II, Polish prisoners of war in the Soviet Union, Romanian prisoners of war in the Soviet Union, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Aftermath_of_World_War_II?oldid=5293998, Pages using duplicate arguments in template calls. [81][83] A US military government in southern Korea was established in the capital city of Seoul. Lend-lease came just before its reserves were exhausted. Edward Grant Meade, American military government in Korea,: King's Crown Press 1951, p.78. [62], In the first few weeks of the American military occupation of Japan, rape and other violent crime was widespread in naval ports like Yokohama and Yokosuka but declined shortly afterward. New satellite states were set up by the Soviets in Poland, Bulgaria, Hungary,[13][page needed] Czechoslovakia,[14] Romania,[15][full citation needed][16] Albania,[17] and East Germany; the last of these was created from the Soviet zone of occupation in Germany. Members of the United Nations agreed to outlaw wars of aggression in an attempt to avoid a third world war. ► The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria was one of the events that triggered the war. 2 (Winter 2001). The agents were transported under the cover of the "British Baltic Fishery Protection Service". A new directive recognised that "[a]n orderly, prosperous Europe requires the economic contributions of a stable and productive Germany. World War II, conflict that involved virtually every part of the world during 1939–45.  • Strategic bombing, • Expulsion of Germans [46] The Soviets initially had no rules against their troops "fraternising" with German women, but by 1947 they started to isolate their troops from the German population in an attempt to stop rape and robbery by the troops. On February 4, 1946, the Red Cross was permitted to visit and assist prisoners also in the U.S. occupation zone of Germany, although only with very small quantities of food. Despite U.S. support to the Kuomintang, Communist forces were ultimately victorious and established the People's Republic of China (PRC) on the mainland. Because the French colonial authorities started to hold secret talks with the Free French, the Japanese interned them 9 March 1945.  • Pearl Harbor The UK, France, and the Netherlands conscripted some Japanese troops to fight colonial resistances elsewhere in Asia. Before the war, the Middle East had three main centers of power: Egypt, the Ottoman Empire, and Iran. The Cold War also saw the creation of propaganda and espionage organisations such as Radio Free Europe, the Information Research Department, the Gehlen Organization, the Central Intelligence Agency, the Special Activities Division, and the Ministry for State Security. In June 1941, the Soviet governments of the Baltic states carried out mass deportations of "enemies of the people"; as a result, many treated the invading Nazis as liberators when they invaded only a week later. Aftermath of World War I. In Europe, West Germany, after having continued to decline economically during the first years of the Allied occupation, later experienced a remarkable recovery, and had by the end of the 1950s doubled production from its pre-war levels. Western Allied occupation force officers in Germany were ordered to refuse to cooperate with the Soviets in sharing captured wartime secret weapons. Most convicts were given amnesty a few years later. From 1946-1948, the UK introduced bread rationing which it never did during the war.[1][2][3][4]. Labour and civil unrest broke out in the British colony of Malaya in 1946. From 1948 onwards West Germany also became a minor beneficiary of the Marshall Plan. At the time, there were only women, children and old people in the village, as all the young men had been mobilized for the war. 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