Muscle fatigue is a decline in the force‐generating ability of the muscle as a result of recent activity (Edwards, 1981; Vollestad, 1997). Biomedical Engineering / Biomedizinische Technik. Contraction fatigability during interleaved neuromuscular electrical stimulation of the ankle dorsiflexors does not depend on contraction amplitude. 1995; Russ et al. The peak power may be directly measured with a photodiode or calculated from pulse energy, pulse duration and pulse shape. 1999; Weber et al. This content was downloaded from IP address 18.104.22.168 on 07/12/2019 at … Another example: if your 500 W laser has a 200 ms pre-programmed pulse duration, that will give you 500 W * 0.2 s = 100 J of total energy. In addition, in response to testing trains at 600 μs pulse duration, there were no differences in the overall levels of low‐frequency fatigue among the three protocols (Fig. Future studies will need to identify the best frequency and intensity of the initial trains, as well as the strategies for modulation of frequency and intensity of the subsequent trains, to maximize muscle performance during FES. The first train of each fatigue protocol generated ∼20% MVIC peak force. (2002)versus our present study resulted from methodological differences. Please note that the terms ‘medium pulse duration’ and ‘short pulse duration’ were operational definitions for the pulse durations used to generate the targeted force using 30 and 60 Hz trains for protocols 2 and 3, respectively. The percentage decline in peak forces between pre‐ and postfatigue 60 Hz testing trains at the same pulse duration as used for the fatiguing trains (left) and at 600 μs pulse duration (right) Pulse duration is measured when the current level is at 50% of its peak, usually expressed in microseconds. Linear Frequency Modulated Pulse Waveforms Benefits of Using Linear FM Pulse Waveform. Functional electrical stimulation can help individuals with paralysis caused by upper motor neurone dysfunctions, such as spinal cord injury, cerebral palsy and stroke, to regain the ability to stand (Triolo et al. Potentiation Potentiation was repeated before the fatigue test to prevent the effects of potentiation from interacting with fatigue (Binder‐Macleod et al. 2003; Johnston et al. A familiar example of PDM is the International Morse Code, used in ship-to-shore communications, amateur radio, and certain other forms of radiotelegraphy. The percentage decline in peak forces from the first to last fatiguing trains, percentage decline in peak force between pre‐ and postfatigue 60 Hz testing trains at the pulse duration of the fatiguing trains, and the percentage decline in 60 Hz testing trains at 600 μs pulse duration were compared using one‐way repeated measures ANOVAs. 6A). The distal electrode was placed over the lower aspect of the thigh, covering the vastus medialis and distal portion of the rectus femoris. ), and no significant interaction between the effects of protocol and fatigue (F= 2.62; n.s. In clinical imaging, a pulse is comprised of 2-4 cycles and the pulse duration is usually between 0.5 to 3 microseconds. Since Godfrey et al. Variable stimulation patterns in younger and older thenar muscle. * Significant difference between protocols (P < 0.01). 2002) and cycling (Gfohler & Lugner, 2000; Hunt et al. c. wavelength multiplied by the number of cycles in the pulse Two transducers send ultrasound pulses into soft tissue. duration). This refers to the temporal length of laser pulse; that is, the time during which the laser actually emits energy. 2002c) recently showed that increasing the frequency or number of pulses did not affect the amount of muscle fatigue produced during repetitive isometric contractions if the initial force produced by the stimulation trains was controlled. Owing to differences in frequencies between the trains used for testing, however, the fatiguing trains for each of the three protocols contained different numbers of pulses. Thus, we also do not know which stimulation intensity levels can help to minimize fatigue when used for repetitive stimulation during FES. Since protocol 1 used the fewest number of pulses and generated the fewest action potentials, the least ATP utilization by the Ca2+‐ATPase and Na+–K+‐ATPase reactions also occurred during protocol 1 (Marsden et al. Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. An interesting finding of this study was the difference in the responses to the testing trains when the pulse duration was maintained at the levels used to fatigue the muscle versus when a 600 μs pulse duration was used (see Figs 5 and 6). Muscular fatigue induced by electrical stimulation. 2005). The 50% MVIC amplitude was used because it allowed a range of frequencies and pulse durations to be used to generate the target force of 20% MVIC. Jubeau M, Zory R, Gondin J, Martin A, Maffiuletti NA. During the maximal voluntary contraction, an electrical stimulation train (amplitude, 130 V; frequency, 100 Hz; pulse duration, 600 μs) was delivered to the quadriceps femoris muscle. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) uses electrical stimulation to generate functional movements in individuals with upper motor neurone paresis (Liberson et al. Higher-order power harmonics of pulsed electrical stimulation modulates corticospinal contribution of peripheral nerve stimulation. 1983; Frank et al. (2002) delivered both supra‐ and submaximal stimulation intensities at the same frequency (40 Hz), different force levels were generated at the two intensities. They were seated on the KinCom, surface electrodes were attached to the skin of the subjects' thigh and tested for appropriate placement. Starting repetitive stimulation with low frequencies produced less muscle fatigue, and switching to a higher stimulation frequency allowed the stimulation to overcome the effects of low‐frequency fatigue (Kebaetse & Binder‐Macleod, 2004; Kebaetse et al. Physiotherapy management of intensive care unit-acquired weakness. 2000; Johnston et al. In addition, the ratio of peak forces produced in response to 20 versus 60 Hz testing trains (20 Hz:60 Hz peak force ratio) was used as a measure of low‐frequency fatigue (Vollestad, 1997; Russ & Binder‐Macleod, 1999). Evaluation of Functional Mobility Outcomes Following Electrical Stimulation in Children With Spastic Cerebral Palsy. 5). The 20 Hz:60 Hz peak force ratio was used as a measure of low‐frequency fatigue. Interestingly, protocol 2 produced the least muscle fatigue, and there were no differences in the levels of low‐frequency fatigue across protocols when a comparable motor unit population was tested using 600 μs pulse duration. Pulse durations from Q-switched lasers typically vary between 100 ps and hundreds of nanoseconds. Product of pulse duration and spectral width frequency (both in FWHM). Peak Power = Pulse energy/ Pulse duration . 5). In addition, peak forces produced in response to the first fatiguing train of each protocol were compared using a repeated‐measures one‐way ANOVA to determine whether the fatigue protocols produced similar initial peak forces. The duty cycles used to fatigue the muscles (300 ms long trains with 700 ms rest time) were similar to the activation patterns recorded in the quadriceps muscle during normal walking (Pierrynowski & Morrison, 1985). The results showed that protocol 1 produced the least decline in peak force in response to the fatiguing trains, as well as the least muscle fatigue and low‐frequency fatigue when the pulse duration was maintained at the level used by the fatiguing trains. Neurosci Lett. 1988). 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